Traumatic Brain Injury refers to and stands for neurological disorders associated with traumatic impacts on and injury of skull, brain, scalp and tissues and blood vessels inside head because of a trauma in head due to traffic accident, fall or any other reason. Patients may suffer from physical, cognitive and behavioural disorders of any degree varying according to the location and size of damages.
Early diagnosis and early rehabilitation programs are very important for prevention or minimization of probable damages of trauma to the body.
Rehabilitation: In case of traumatic brain injurys, rehabilitation program is prepared upon an assessment of disorders depending on the impacted part of body of the patient. Depending on the severity of trauma, rehabilitation goals are determined according to the then-existing normal motor development phase of the patient.
Patient-oriented therapy approach;
Education of patient and his/her family members about the disease
Joint range of motion exercises;
Therapy by such rehabilitation methods as PNF, Bobath, and Johnston;
Pressure sore (decutibus ulcer) and contracture prevention program;
Early mobilization exercises;
Balance and coordination exercises;
Neurogenic bladder management and treatment;
Neurogenic bowel management and treatment;
Occupational therapy (ergotherapy);
Muscular strengthening program;
Management of spasticity by medical and physical therapy agents and ortheses.
In the rehabilitation process, the patient first of all undergoes therapy at bed level, comprised of turning (rolling over) and sitting up in bed, standing up, and stepping and walking in parallel bar. In these phases, various different physiotherapy and rehabilitation techniques, therapy-oriented exercises, robotic rehabilitation, pool therapy, clinical pilates and such other methods are employed depending on the needs of patient. These exercises aim to ensure that the patient recognizes the body parts which has lost their mobility, and regains the skills lost thereby, and returns to normal activities of daily living.
The patient is also assessed in terms of speech, swallowing and respiratory problems, cognitive disorders, and neurogenic bladder and bowel problems, and as a result of this assessment, depending on the needs of patient, speech and swallowing therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, cognitive rehabilitation and bladder and bowel rehabilitation methods are also included in the therapy program.